P 16-

  • pa, ycaoe Apae
  • Bepa oce Kaacpo
  • "Haao paccea Meccacoo ae"
  • epeopo aae
  • Hoa ep
  • Bee a oa
  • poea ycooc coa
  • pa, ycaoe Apae

    e a-a-Oep oee epeco aeape ee co pee Taya, o oa - peoc, cpeeeoe - e c pao. paoae oo o eeo oo ae 16- ee Apae - pa xao yp, yee oopoo, ocoaoe a pacp py ox aco aa, oaao caoe apaoe e a c oceyy cop epee; acoc, a eo ye ocec ocoac xac, peo co paa Kya, ce copeee aacece o. Apa oepa aoc a-a-Oepa, ocoy o e a pa oa ap-oxa, aopa 3ohap ocooooa aa. ooy, opoa aay ae, Apa pepa e a p.oa ap-oxa ypoe paoae - c aae ocpo, ec, aa .. eco, o cepee 16-o ea ae copaac pya eyx pao aaco oo pee. Cpe x p.oce Kapo, cocae yxa-Apyxa (aaxecoo oeca, a oopo ocoaec ce epecoe aooaeco o ceo ), p. Moe Kopoepo, pye aope oac aa, p.oo Aae, e ypec o aop accecoo cyoeo a "exa o", oe pye ece ype. "aca pya" oaaa oe ooe e a epecy yypy; acoc, a cceapoa aaxa aaa, a e ee oe oe oa (cpea Cyo, opo paoa Ty--aa a-a-Oepa ..), ocpe ocec ce epec apoo. Moe xox y pyy , a oooc ca ( 1492 .), e e ao. ocoy Typea ep o pe payo paa epee, a 3e pa paeaa Typ, ac ao coa oc Co 3e ocec ae. Pace ye aa
    Apa a eca eoo. O poc 1534 . epycae; pae oooc yee poe Ee, e o yc poc; opace 36 e o pexa a. ooa o yc aae y ypeo aa, oce eo ce o a, o oee e oy eo ye o oe o ca ca ce eo yea - ecop a o, o o aoo cape eo. pepo oopa oa Apa pyooee aco py aaco, oce eo o yep opace 38 e. Apa e oca oce ce oo coceopyo acao , oao a e oopa oa, oa o oya ypeo aa, o coepeo o-oy paepy c aay, eo oxo oe ca ocoooaa.
    o oo pee, oxy caco aa (13-15 .), aao aaac oo oe eoa pya axc ypeo. o o yee, peaaeoe yao oo e. Haa c Apa, aaa oo paypce caa yac cpaeo pox pyax aoo epecoo ye, a o epe co e oce eo cep aaa oya oceecoe pacpocpaee epecx epax o cey py. B e e cocoo o ooe apaee aae, oopoe coa Apa?

    Bepa oce Kaacpo

    yxoa aocepa o ox a ceo eo. o o pe, oceoaee a ae epee ca - ae, oopoe coao oyee pye, papye ce epeco aye. Epe oo pee ocpa ae ca pepo a e, a ceo ocpae Kaacpoy Bopo Mpoo o. Hao oe, o epe oc ca ee aae ox Pco ep, o ao-o cce oee ope e oyocpoa, e ca ca (eco), pee ya poecce paaa Pco ep 4-5 eax). 3a oop c e o cpae epe p ooao ca ca coe poo. oee oo - o ae o o pyee cao eye, cao ooec yxoo co epeco o. ao oc eoae ec, ooo 100 c x oo, a e, o ooc yxo ca pecc, oepac peceoa . ae aa a, pooo paa opoe epao, aa poo a 9-oe Aa - e papye Xpaa pyx ecac epecoo apoa.
    Oao aacpoa, papya ay, oepyac o e pe o yco opoe epeco p cpa. (Type cya oop: "Co y opo ca, oop oe coe cpa yy ac acee ocae ee o e".) ya oe a aea peo oe a Kaacpoy, oeo o coae ypaco aa.

    "Haao paccea Meccacoo ae"

    Mype py Apa oya ce a "Pe xa eyaey" - "Haao Bpaca Meccacoo ae aeo" - .e. o cooa ooc y e epoo, oopo epe 400 e oce x ooac peoe coc 20-o ea ( eo aa opypoa aec ceo "Moe a ocyapco pa"). Booe oop, co aec o oaaoc ep, eo c aa 16-o ea aac eyo poc epeco p cpa, c oo pee aac ae "epee Top" p cpa. aoap ypea aa, epe a oo coe epecoe ee (yxa-Apyx, aaa ..) cao o pacpocpac o py Co 3e. epeco, o o o a peoo-ococ opoca py Apa coaa co a peox coco 20-o ea. Hapep, Apa ca, o aee epapo cao c ooee a Top, a o ooee e epe pooe yee aa. coa, o paccapa aay, a "Topa ha-eya" - "ee ae"; oo a e oocc aae p. Ky eo oceoae 20- ee, ye, o opaee epecoo apoa p cpa eeo cao c "ooee peoo e" - epy oepe, a ce aa.
    Ooee a Top a ocoe aa peoo coe 16-o ea o oe eco cao c e o oxoo, oop papaoa Apae oop op epecy coepeo o peo a cop.

    epeopo aae

    ac pa epay e Apa oo pae, oe caa, o coepe epeopo ca c e, o aaa popea a copecy paepy, .e. oa co "oceco pa" pepaac "copo-ocecy pay".
    oaec paccope y e oee opoo. o ooe pecae coo aaa? Kaaa - o yee o cpyype y o cpyype Bcx po, a ae o o, a eoe oe, aoecy c pa, ec p oe oeceoo cea. Cxe aa a eoey oooc ocoa co coe a ac oceco pa, ocoa ce a acy oeo pooo poecca, ae oooc apa co c a o, o a oeceoy Cey oooc c oe co ac a H p. Ha epo ae pacp aa ( ca 13-15 ea) ocooe ae e yeoc aoec yya Kococa (oee, aoec yya c oece paee po). Kaaa ya eoea ooc yaoo Cye, yaoo oe c Bc pa - o o, o e opee, a "yao-ocecy pay". Apa e coa ooe apaee, oca epax aa "copo-ocecy pay", .e. ao c oece ypaee po e oeoo yya, o epecoo apoa a eoo eoo. Apa epy epeco cop peo cc, oc ee epax aa. K cecoy occe opa yao oaoc cecoe occee opa oeaoao. Bc epeca cop, ae (ay) Ocooee (eya), papyee epeco o ca opoee ee p cpa - a epeoccea aacecx epax. Bcec oo, ay - axoee epee " ey" y apoo pa - ocoa ypaco aae a opaee a ee copo-oceco pa "pa e" - "pa cocyo oeceoo cea", peyae oopoo "yo" - "cp oeceoo cea" - papacac o py oaa o ac "o" - "copy", "ooo", c ec, oope a "axaa cp e" (o ec o aec o ep coc cp). oee oo: epe oo pacce oo o py, o oo cpa oeceoo cea o copac e ce, o o ce py. B ao-o cce o "yaec ae oo", yaec o, o co Cyee occao ee oeceoo cea. 3aaa epee - copa o cey py paccee e cp oeceoo cea, a x (= eya) o ac "o", a oece ce o o (oope ca o cee e e eaecoo coa cyecoa oo apapy a o e "cpe", a ooy, p oee o cp, o oaa ypa) - e ca ca apepa oa cpae pa, ocyec "y" - cpaee, eccacoe aee. coa, peae epee a x paccee epecae poco "cyo", o pepaaec aay, e, oa caec a ac ecac opea cc paax ee oe. ec epeca ocpac a ecccea pae caoc ac copeco e a ocaeoe oe oo ee. aoe - o opeae cc. A e eco, o ocyce oye cca ec ep ao cep, o pe a ocee cca caoc, aoopo, a coo eo ep.

    Hoa ep

    Booe, axoee cca - oe oa aaa. "Cc" e pya aa eoey e; o ec pao ooac o cca ye coe y, ec ya y eoea pae aeaoc oo "cca" aae ac eo epe, - o ee oe eoea. (oooe ece copeeo cxoo aaec "ooepa".) Apa co poec y oepa ceo epecoo apoa a eoo, aoaa y c paoc ooyeee paa paoy ceaoo op.
    yee Top coee aoee cao epe e poco cocoo oce yaoo cace "yye pe", o cpeco pec apo eo aee ec p ae.

    Bee a oa

    K coae, e e ec oooc opoo o ea cxe Apa, o aec, o oa apa oa ecaaoo. o cy, Apa coa aacecoe ocoae cop - a ec cop ee eax occaec aaceco epoo, eoe aae e oecey pyy cop, oa cop popeae cc. Koa e eoe e oe copecoo cca, o ecpae opao pae ey yxox c, o eoea (coo eoea - o epe ocoeo) oe ceo yeae yae oyee eccceoc eo ec. Eo yeae, oa o e epce e oae, ae o yo, o eo ceye, oa eo o a ceec py. Ec e eoe oe o copecy cxey ye coe eco e, o o ec o, o a e popoo aaoc "ee a oa".
    B ao-o cce ce popoo oop eo o o, o ec o y pacoaa oecey pyy cop, oc epe oece a cxey oeceoo pae po. aec, oy oce ec Taax. Apa e cea o e caoe a aaceco, a e a eco e. pae paoc o copeco paep o po oo, o ce ee aac aa pa Apa co yee. o oo ce o aac e, o copa cceapoa aay, ecy o x. Apa e a coepeo o a e, oop pae e ece, o cpay pa, o o acoo pa. Apa eoeo aoo ypo, oop a aay e ooy, o o ee y, a ooy, o o ee e. O o oca ycpoco Bcx po e ooy, o ey paccaa po o ye, a ooy o o ca cye oc x. Eo ya yea e Bce p, a eo yca epecaa o, o ea ya.

    poea ycooc coa

    Hao caa, o ca o copeco paep, yee ye e oe a ac oe cxe, ec peao a ococo, ao-o cce - oo ocox cocax c peooo coa. B aae 20-o ea o oo epeox coco, ocoy e coa yeaa ooceo poe acc. Oao oe pcoeec oy e e oey e coa coa ocyapca; ooy oce coa ocyapca y x acya pycpa e: o e oy opee ce, pa eo, coceo, o ocyapco coao. coa, o oep o opep, oopoy o o ac. Ha cao ee, pyee e ec o cax ex eyo , oo oe eo pec a caoycy yaoy, a caoycy aoaoy. oo, o ecoo oc o eoe, ao, o Pocc o aoe oe oypoe aoeae, oopoe aaoc "ap y oce aaco cee". eoe c e e - a ccepa. O paoa, opoc, oe oo - oc, o oce oo c cyc ap. o pocxo oce e ooy, o o oo c o ocee o e yca, - o, apo, ooy, o oa o ee oc, y eo pooa "pycpa e", o oep e. oep e, o oep cocooc ope, o - pa eo e. To ec, oa aoee ax ee ecooc - o pooc e.
    pycpa e ac oo aoee ex oee coa. ocy coa ocyapca pa, cec co aa cee opoc: o e ae? A ae - eo, ooy o ye cecoo coa e oaaoc ao o oee pyo e. Moo o , oeo, oop o o, o aa e o, o o ocyapco cao ye, oae .., o "ye oae" - o e e, pa oopo apo oe . ooy, acoc, o pyee e paoc aoao pce - occoe, ooope Oco pox eax, eyx ac papye ocyapca.
    B oe o oo, peo co c caoo aaa paccapa coae ocyapco pa e a caoe, o a epy ca eccacoo poecca - oo a ee, a oy cyee o ece. o e oo e ycye, o o c coae ocyapca oc e - o, apo, yoo yee, o cea ceo o a o opoe. copeca epcea, epe oopo aec ceo peo co, a aoea eo aao Apa. Ha ocoe eo cxe ee cp aya ocoa cop a oeceoo pacp py a ocec ocpoea c oe paa Kya. Ta opao, e peooo coa 20-o ea eocpeceo poc peooo coa 16-o ea.
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